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Tissue engineering, cloning technology and cell engineering
Plant tissue engineering
The structure of the skin is divided into three parts: the epidermis Epidermis on the surface, Dermis on the deep layer and Hypodermis on the innermost layer of the subcutaneous tissue. The types of cells that exist vary according to different levels,which are responsible for the function is also different, using modern advanced biotechnology to understand the interaction between skin cells, and also using the regulation mechanism between cells for prepare perfect skin care products.
Keratinocyte-the cell type that accounts for the largest number of epidermal cells. It is closely related to the moisturizing, whitening and nourishing of the skin. It is also the most important cell object for the maintenance.
Melanocyte-is related to the formation of melanin and the skin's ability to defend against ultraviolet rays. It is directly related to whitening and spots in maintenance. It is the focus of the white and beautiful maintenance of oriental people.
Langerhan’s Cell-It is the skin's antigen presenting cell and skin sensitivity related cells.
Merck cells-derived from nerve cells, generally believed to be related to the balance of the skin.
Skin is divided into： Dry or Sensitive、Normal、Combination to Oily、Adult skin – Ages 30 – 39 and Mature skin – Ages 40 & over.
Dry and sensitive skin characteristics：
- Loss of moisture / natural oil
- Feels tight, leathery and flaky
- Sensitive skin / broken capillaries
- Sensitive to harsh cleansers
- Needs gentle cleansing
- Needs deep moisturizer
Normal skin characteristics：
- No major problems with flakiness or oiliness
- Firm and supple / healthy glow
- Smooth / small pores、Occasional blemishes
- May fluctuate with seasons
- Re-evaluate skin type often
Combination to Oily skin characteristics：
- Strong sebaceous gland secretion
- The cuticle is too thick
- Prone to acne
- Large pores
- Less prone to wrinkles
Adult skin characteristics：
- Appearance of fine lines wrinkles
- Often dry / or sensitive
- May begin to sag
- May show dark patches
The skin quality is determined by the lipid metabolic system of the skin epidermis and the amount of sebum secretion.
Factors that determine skin quality: sebaceous glands, sweat glands, epidermal lipids
The face is always prone to tightness, dryness, peeling, roughness, and unpleasant fine lines and spots. Nourishing and moisturizing are the main points of maintenance, and you should choose highly moisturizing and active products. Pay attention for avoiding ultraviolet rays to reduce wrinkles and spots.
Fragile skin, because the skin, it has a thin cuticle, it is often prone to redness, rash, itching, etc., and the capillaries are obvious. Therefore, the choice of skin care products should avoid excessive irritation, and choose pure natural plant-derived products, and strengthen the skin's moisturizing ability, which can reduce the occurrence of skin sensitivity.
The skin oil system is balanced and normal, and the skin is not oily, non-dry, and supple. It provides basic daily maintenance of the skin. It is enough to choose refreshing, skin-friendly moisturizer and pay attention for sun protection.
The T-shaped area is oily, and the cheeks are dehydrated, dry and tight are the characteristics of combination skin. It is recommended to keep the skin fresh in the spring and summer and pay attention to the convergence of pores. Choose refreshing skin care products to reduce the greasiness of the T-shaped area; in autumn and winter, you should strengthen moisturizing and moisturizing. Choose moisturizing products for skin care products to adjust skin texture.
Acne, large pores, oily T-spots, easy to take off makeup, etc., are the characteristics of oily skin. In addition to thorough facial cleansing, it is also very important to exfoliate and apply face, because it can not only remove it. Suitable skin cares can also reduce the oil secretion and indirectly reduce pores. The use of skin care products should focus on refreshing and non-greasy products.
Based on the above-mentioned different skin cell types and skin characteristics and skin cell molecular levels, skin care products with new era effects have been developed to professionally improve skin care related problems.
Human skin can be divided into the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue. The epidermis reflect the skin’s luster, moisturizing and smoothness, while the dermis reflects the skin’s elasticity. The dermis is mainly composed of collagen and elastin. The structure contains a lot of hyaluronic acid and other intercellular substance. When the human body ages, hyaluronic acid will continue to lose, and collagen and elastin will also be fragile and lost due to aging or other decomposing enzymes. At this time, the structure of the dermis layer loose, the elasticity of the skin will continue to weaken. At the same time, the ability of fibroblasts to secrete collagen will also be weakened, and the ability to respond to various wrinkles will also continue to decrease. At this time, the relative elasticity of the skin will be relatively poor.
- Easy to dry： Due to the decreased secretion capacity of sebaceous glands and sweat glands, the skin is prone to dryness due to poor sebaceous film formation.
- Skin thinning： Due to the shortened lifespan of epidermal cells, as well as the atrophy of dermal connective tissue and subcutaneous fat, the degeneration of collagen fibers and elastic fibers, the thickness and elasticity of the skin are reduced.
- Sagging skin, wrinkles, bags under the eyes： Due to the aforementioned changes and the influence of gravity, the facial skin is gradually sagging and falling.
- Expression pattern： The muscle activities of the face will pull the skin tissue, and the muscle activity over the years will cause the skin to appear expression lines, including: crow's feet, fore-up lines, frown lines, laugh lines, all of which belong to this type of wrinkle.
- Rough and dull： Epidermal keratinocytes produce irregular keratinization, making the skin surface rough and not smooth.
- Dark spots, age spots： Regulation of skin pigmentation will increase melanin, resulting in dark spots and sunburn. In addition, it is possible that due to the degradation of melanocytes, the pigment that produces raindrop-like white spots may be lost. Abnormal keratinization of epidermal cells will produce seborrheic keratosis or age spots
- Solar keratosis： The reddish-brown keratinized plaques that appear on the exposed area are the early manifestations of skin cancer
- Skin cancer ：When skin cells undergo malignant changes, unusual skin tumors, uneven pigmentation, ulcers, bleeding or rapid enlargement, it may be skin cancer.
- Sebaceous gland hypertrophy： People with oily skin are prone to excessive proliferation and hypertrophy of sebaceous glands during the aging processes. In addition to large pores, they can also produce small flesh-colored to yellow pupils.
- Age-related purpura： Due to the reduced elasticity of the tissue around the blood vessel and insufficient support, it is very fragile, and it is easy to bleed under the skin and form purple spots with a slight collision.
Among them, the most obvious symptoms of skin aging are the following four：
1、 Thinning of the skin (collagen loss)
2、 Lack of skin elasticity (hyaluronic acid, collagen loss, weak elastin)
3、 Reduced skin repairs ability. Wound healing disorder (reduced cell growth and metabolism)
4、 Slow pigment metabolism (decreased cell metabolism efficiency)
Normal cells will not replicate forever. If there is no external stimulation (growth factors), the cell will leave the growth cycle and enter the dormant G0 phase. When stimulated by growth factors (messaging factors), the cell will leave the G0 phase and enter a new growth cycle starts the recovery mechanism, which allows the cells to grow and the skin rejuvenates.
During the aging process, the content of growth factors will decrease with age, making the thickness of the epidermis and dermis of aging skin become thinner and thinner, and the elasticity and metabolism of the skin will also decrease. At this timed, the skin will gradually aged.
The process of changing the seasons of the skin and a large amount of exposures to ultraviolet light will greatly increase the skin's water loss (Total Epidermal Water Loss, TEWL rises). At this time, skin cells are damaged, affecting the skin's normal sebum formation, and the protective film is reduced. The skin will feel dry and dry. You can use Shea butter, which has a strong water-locking property, and the intercellular lipid—Ceramide III to lock the water from the inside out, and use Saccharide Isomerate and hyaluronic acid to moisturize the skin surface, and then through Hexyl Nicotinate activates the microcirculation and cell activation (such as yeast extract, seaweed extract, multi-peptides, etc.) to restore the normal condition of the cells, leaving the cells tender and delicate.
In addition to genetic genes, human skin is originally dark, but it is mainly caused by long-term ultraviolet rays.
The mechanism of action is as follows:
The depth of skin color is determined by the amount of melanin and phaeoomelanin in the skin, and these pigments are synthesized by some special cells in the skin epidermis-melanin melanocytes. In melanocytes, the enzyme that causes the melanin formation is "tyrosinase". Under normal circumstances, tyrosine is in a dormant state, but after being stimulated by UV ultraviolet radiation from the sun, it catalyzes the various intermediate links of melanin production, resulting in darkening and darkening of skin color, and proper reduction of melanin Inhibiting tyrosine enzyme has the effect of lightening skin tone.
Mainly because the skin is aging and the cell metabolism slows down. As the metabolism time of epidermal keratinocytes slows down, the skin loses the epidermis-dermis connection, and the collagen and elastin function of the dermis is degraded, which greatly reduces the repair ability of the tissues, resulting in skin relaxation and wrinkles. At this time, you can choose skin care products containing peptide ingredients to activate skin cells, smooth wrinkles, and avoid rapid skin aging and relaxation.。
Brief history of the development of Growth Factors：
1948~1960－It was discovered that certain cells, snake venom and mouse submandibular glands have active substances that promote cell division and growth.
1960~1962－NGF and EGF were separated and purified for the first time.
1986－The Nobel Prize commented that the discovery of growth factors "opened up a new field of broad importance for basic scientific research. Thanks to this research, people will have a new understanding of many diseases, including developmental abnormalities and degenerative dementia. Lesions, delayed wound healing, etc...
Growth factors and skin care：
Increase the number of dividing cells in skin tissue and accelerate skin renewal.
Improve the level of cell metabolism and remove waste from skin tissues.
Improve skin tissue collagen synthesis ability.
FGFcan obviously promote the proliferation of fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and epithelial cells, and promote wound healing. It plays an important role in skin and wound repair.
EGFcan strongly promote cell mitosis and chemotaxis to attract capillary endothelial cells, effectively stimulate new blood vessel formation and final collagen synthesis, and accelerate wound healing and skin growth.
PDGFcan stimulate the proliferation and chemotaxis of fibroblasts and monocytes, and the local application of PDGF on skin wounds can promote the formation of granulation tissue.
TGF-βis involved in the chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation of a variety of cells, and participates in the processes of epithelial regeneration, interstitial hyperplasia and angiogenesis after trauma. TGF-β can stimulate vascular endothelial cells, accelerate the formation of blood vessels, and help restore blood supply to the wound as soon as possible, thereby promoting wound healing.
In the process of human skin repair and regeneration, many different types of growth factors and interleukins are needed to stimulate the proliferation of epidermal cells and blood vessels, reduce inflammation, and promote fibroblasts to synthesize and secrete collagen and elastin, which are jointly organized into new regeneration skin. Therefore, human growth factors provide important information for skin regeneration, stimulate cell regeneration and repair, and have an important relationship with skin regeneration.
The peptide is composed of amino acids and is the latest anti-aging ingredient. When used in skin care products, due to its small molecular weight, it can reach the deep skin layer without special carriers or emulsification technology, activate slow cells, and deeply smooth wrinkles and prevent The expression lines are generated to avoid increasing the phenomenon of aging.
Basically, peptides and growth factors are composed of amino acids with different characteristics. At present, the tripeptides, pentapeptides, hexapeptides, etc. that are commonly seen in the market are mostly based on biotechnology. Amino acids are linked or cut to become an active ingredient that can interact with physiological functions. And in an unspecified way to test the relationship with the body's mechanism of actions, so it may have different mechanisms of actions. For example, hexapeptide can regulate the excessive release of neurotransmitters (catecholamines), thereby reducing the appearance of expression lines. The five peptides have a positive effect on the strengthening and secretion of collagen.
The growth factor itself is a substance in the human body, but the amount secreted by the human body is relatively limited, and it may decrease the secretion amount due to aging or functional decline. At present, most of the growth factors used in medical treatment or biotechnology maintenance are produced through animal factories or gene replication methods to produce growth factors that are the same or very similar to those in the human body, and use various supplementary methods to make physiological functions. Revert to a healthier and younger state. Because the functions of the human body are quite complex, a single growth factor may have multiple functions, and most of the general peptides are set or simulated a specific function, so the function is relatively simple.
Growth factors are one of the most important research fields in the field of biotechnology and tissue engineering. Their future development and importance and stem cell development, technology receive the same attention. The development and application of various growth factors are as follows:
Moisturize and lock water：
It has a variety of amino acid composition and mucilage and reducing sugars, a variety of minerals and rare elements, which can stimulate cell activities; promote the proliferation of elastin fibrous matrix, and regenerate and reorganize skin cells after use. It also has anti-free radical ion activity; it effectively captures free radicals after sun radiation and reorganizes the skin after sun exposure.
Soothing, calming, moisturizing, softening and repairing the skin.
Alanine、 Glutamic acid、 Aspartic acid：
A basic component of proteins, it has good moisturizing and swelling ability, stimulates the formation of new collagen fibers, promotes skin regeneration, increases skin elasticity, and activates skin.
Plant-derived natural amino acid humectant, excellent moisture absorption and moisture retention, and good skin moisturization.
It has the function of moisturizing and moisturizing the skin, and has regular hygroscopic factors, direct water maintenance, prolonging hydration, slowing down dehydration, and the indirect effect of water retention can be the toughening effect on the skin, making the skin soft and smooth , Rich and comfortable.
It can bind with amino acid functional groups on the stratum corneum of the skin, and bind firmly to the skin like a magnet. The other end will exert a strong hydration function to prevent the skin from losing transdermal water and absorb water from the external environment to dynamically maintain skin moisture Balance, play a regular moisturizing effect.
Hyaluronic acid is a component of the dermis of the human body, which has the ability to retain water, and the amount is up to 400 times its own weight. The use of hyaluronic acid can improve dry and wrinkled skin. Therefore, hyaluronic acid is the most ideal product for improving dry and aging skin. Long-term use can make the skin long-lasting moisturizing, moisturizing the skin crystal clear, hydrated.
Shea butter： A vegetable fat that has a softening effect on the skin and has a moisturizing effect.
Hexyl Nicotinate：Congestive substances that promote blood flow are also very important for hydration.
It has the function of revitalizing and protecting cells, and can prevent ultraviolet rays from protecting cells from damage, and prevent skin roughness.
Ceramide III：It strengthens the immune system. Ceramide has the same structure as epidermal oil. It exists in the interstitial space of the stratum corneum, plays a moisturizing function to maintain structural integrity, and acts as a repair function to maintain the normal epidermal barrier function of the skin to avoid foreign body damage. Maintain skin youth and vitality.
Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-5： Can promote the regeneration of fibroblasts to rebuild the extracellular matrix. Contains the synthesis of Collagen I and IV, as well as the synthesis of Fibronetin and Glycosaminoglycans.
Argireline： It can reduce deeper wrinkles on the face caused by the contraction of facial expression muscles. It is especially effective on the forehead and around the eyes. It has obvious wrinkle-removing effect, moisturizing ability, and increase skin elasticity.
Peptide Complex： It can activate epidermal cells and fibroblasts, so it can reduce the deep fine lines caused by facial muscle contraction. It is especially effective on the forehead and around the eyes. It has the obvious wrinkle removal effect, improves cell self-moisturizing ability, and promotes cells The synthesis of intermediate substances increases skin elasticity.
Yeast Extract： It nourishes, activates cells, removes wrinkles, promotes the proliferation of native collagen and elastin, and increases skin smoothness. Therefore, live yeast enzymes can promote moisture retention within the skin, moisturize the skin surface and increase the oxygen absorption of skin cells.
Ascorbyl Tetra Isopalmitate：It has good penetration into the skin and is easily absorbed through the skin. It can effectively act on the pigments of all layers of the skin. It can inhibit the synthesis of melanin pigment by tyrosine,